Chronology of the War

Liberty

This chronology was provided in full by noted historian and writer Professor Donald R. Hickey.  We wish to thank him for allowing us to use it here.  It is not to be copied in whole or in part without his expressed permission.

CHRONOLOGY

 

            Most chronologies of the War of 1812 are marred by errors, partly because they are compiled hurriedly and partly because they draw on faulty sources.  Secondary sources are not always dependable, and even primary sources are sometimes vague or contradictory.  Opposing commanders might give different dates for a military action, and occasionally the same commander might even present conflicting data.  Reports compiled by commanders at sea or in remote parts of the West seem to be especially prone to ambiguity and error.

            The chronology that follows is not tied to the text of this book but instead is designed to stand alone and serve as a reference tool for anyone interested in the War of 1812.  Hence, there are many events here that are not mentioned in the text.  Because Great Britain was one of the principals in the War of 1812 and the conflict was a direct outgrowth of the Napoleonic Wars, the chronology includes events on both sides of the Atlantic.

            In preparing this chronology, I have profited greatly from two unpublished lists of 1812 sites: a compilation of 306 actions and engagements prepared by the National Park Service for the American Battlefield Protection Program and a list of 395 Maryland sites compiled under the direction of Ralph E. Eshelman and Christopher T. George for several Maryland government agencies and the National Park Service.[i]  Although neither work is definitive or free from errors, I found both to be exceptionally useful.  In fact, the Maryland study could serve as a model for other states wishing to inventory their 1812 sites.

            In an effort to make this chronology as accurate as possible, I have checked every item against the most authoritative source available.  Whenever possible, this was a primary source.  For this purpose, I relied heavily on the published documentary collections prepared by William Wood, Ernest A. Cruikshank, and William S. Dudley and Michael J. Crawford.[ii]  I excluded a number of minor engagements in the West, on the northern frontier, and in the Chesapeake because I could not find enough information on them.  I also excluded most actions of privateers because the information available on their operations is so often incomplete or unreliable. 

            I have given every name that an engagement has been known by, even those that are incorrect.  Thus, “Battle of Mackinac/Michilimackinac.” On the other hand, I have ignored minor name differences or variant spellings.  I have given the common name for an engagement even if that name overstates the nature of the action.  Thus the skirmish at Sodus Point, New York, in 1814 is listed as the “Battle of Sodus Point.”  To fix the locations of all events in the chronology, I have given the modern state, province, or country in parentheses.  If the engagement occurred on water, I have given the body of water or a nearby landmark.  When the primary sources present conflicting dates, I have given what I think is the best one.  Occasionally, where I could not reach a decision, I have presented both dates.  Thus, the date for the Battle of Campbell’s Island in 1814 is given as July 21 or 22.

            In spite of the care that I have taken in preparing this chronology, it undoubtedly has some errors.  Readers wishing to suggest additions or corrections should write me at <[email protected]>.

 

AU       = Austria                                  BE       = Belgium                         CZ       = Czech Republic

FR       = France                                   GB       = Great Britain                GR       = Germany

IT         = Italy                                      LC        = Lower Canada              NE        = Netherlands

PO       = Portugal                                RU       = Russia                            SP         = Spain

UC       = Upper Canada                     US        = United States

 

Cap.     = Captain

BG       = Brigadier general

MG       = Major general

LG        = Lieutenant general

 

PM       = Provincial Marine

HM       = His Majesty’s

(n)       = Number of guns an armed ship carried

 

 

Note:

            US states and Canadian provinces are identified by their two-letter postal codes.

            The principal military and diplomatic events of the War of 1812 are in bold type.

Webmaster note:  US Frigate Constitution engagements are marked in bold blue type.

 

 

1789

April 30:                George Washington inaugurated as president of US in New York City (NY)

July 14:                  Mob storms Bastille in Paris (French Revolution begins) (FR)

1791

June 19:                 British Parliament splits Quebec into UC and LC (GB)

1792

April 20:                FR declares war on Austria (French Revolutionary Wars begin)

September 20:      Battle of Valmy (FR)

September 22:      French revolutionaries in Paris proclaim a republic (FR)

November 6:         Battle of Jemappes (BE)

1793

January 21:            French revolutionaries execute Louis XVI in Paris (FR)

February 1:             FR declares war on GB

August 23:              FR adopts levée en masse

1793-94:               Reign of Terror (FR)

1794

June 26:                  Battle of Fleurus (BE)

November 19:         US and GB sign Jay Treaty in London (GB)

1795

October 27:             Directory assumes power (French Revolution ends) (FR)

1796-97                 Napoleon’s Italian campaign

1797

March 4:                  John Adams inaugurated as president of US in Philadelphia (PA)

April 16-May 15:     Spithead Mutiny (GB)

May 12-June 15:     Nore Mutiny (GB)

October 21:          US Frigate Constitution, launched.  Hartt’s shipyard, Boston, MA about noon.    

October 18-December 17:          XYZ Affair in Paris (FR)

1798-99                 Napoleon’s Egyptian campaign 

1798-1801             US and FR in Quasi-War 

1799

November 9-10:    Coup of Brumaire ends rule of Directory (FR)

December 25:        Napoleon becomes First Consul of FR

1800

June 14:                  Battle of Marengo (IT)

December 3:          Battle of Hohenlinden (GR)

December 16:        League of Armed Neutrality established

1801

March 4:                 Thomas Jefferson inaugurated as president of US in Washington (DC)

March 17:               Henry Addington becomes prime minister of GB

October 1:              GB and FR sign preliminary Treaty of Amiens (French Revolutionary Wars end) (FR)

1802

March 25:              GB and FR sign final Treaty of Amiens (FR) 

1803

May 17:                   GB issues letters of marque and reprisal against FR (Napoleonic Wars begin)

October 1:              Commercial clauses in Jay Treaty expire 

1804

May 10:                  William Pitt the Younger becomes prime minister of GB

May 18:                  Napoleon becomes Emperor of FR    

1805

May 22:                  GB issues Essex decision, which threatens US re-export trade

October 20:           AU surrenders at Ulm (GR)

October 21:            Battle of Trafalgar off coast of Spain in Atlantic

December 2:          Battle of Austerlitz/the Three Emperors (CZ)

1806

January 22:           Francis Gore appointed lieutenant-governor of UC

February 11:          Lord Grenville becomes prime minister of GB

April 18:                 US adopts (but suspends) partial non-importation law against GB

April 25:                 Leander affair (HM Ship Leander [56] accidentally kills American seaman John Pierce off New York harbor in Atlantic)

May 16:                   GB issues Order-in-Council proclaiming Fox Blockade of northern Europe and tacitly suspending Essex decision

October 14:            Battle of Jena-Auerstädt (GR)

November 21:        FR issues Berlin Decree proclaiming blockade of GB (beginning of Continental System) 

December 31:        US and GB sign Monroe-Pinkney Treaty in London (GB)

1807

January 7:              GB issues Order-in-Council barring neutral trade between enemy ports

February 7-8:        Battle of Eylau (RU)

March 3:                 US repudiates Monroe-Pinkney Treaty

March 31:               Duke of Portland becomes prime minister of GB

June 14:                  Battle of Friedland (RU)

June 22:                  Chesapeake-Leopard affair (HM ShipLeopard [52] fires on US Frigate Chesapeake [40] off coast of Virginia in Atlantic)                

October 17:             GB issues proclamation renouncing impressment from neutral warships but also recalling all British seamen and ordering Royal Navy to impress any found on neutral merchant vessels

November 11:         GB issues Orders-in-Council forcing neutral trade with French-controlled ports to pass through GB

December 14:         US activates partial non-importation law of 1806

December 17:         FR issues Milan Decree authorizing seizure of neutral ships complying with Orders-in-Council

December 22:        US adopts embargo prohibiting US ships and goods from leaving port

1808

April 17:                  FR issues Bayonne Decree, seizing all American ships entering ports controlled by FR

August 21:              Battle of Vimeiro (PO)

1809

January 16:            Battle of Corunna (SP)

March 1:                 US adopts non-intercourse law against GB and FR

March 4:                 James Madison inaugurated as president of US in Washington (DC)

April 19:                  US and GB sign Erskine Agreement in Washington (DC)

April 26:                  GB issues Order-in-Council blockading ports under French control

May 22:                   GB repudiates Erskine Agreement

July 5-6:                  Battle of Wagram (AU)

October 4:               Spencer Perceval becomes prime minister of GB

1810

March 23:               FR issues Rambouillet Decree, sequestering all US ships and cargoes entering French-controlled ports on or after May 20, 1809

May 1:                      US adopts Macon’s Bill No. 2, reopening trade with GB and FR

August 5:                 FR establishes Trianon Tariff, barring most imports

August 5:                 FR issues Trianon Decree, condemning all US ships and cargoes entering French-controlled ports on or after May 20, 1809

August 5:                  FR sends Cadore letter to US, offering to rescind Continental System

September 27:         Battle of Busaco (PO)              

October 18:              FR issues Fontainebleau Decree, imposing harsh penalties for smuggling British goods to Continent

1811

February 28:            US minister William Pinkney leaves GB

March 2:                   US adopts non-importation law against GB

May 16:                     Little Belt affair/President-Little Belt affair (clash of US Frigate President [54] and HM Sloop Little Belt [20] off coast of                                           Virginia in Atlantic)

October 9:                Isaac Brock appointed president and administrator of UC

October 21:              George Prevost appointed captain-general and governor-in-chief of Canada

November 4:            War Congress convenes in Washington (DC)

November 7:            Battle of Tippecanoe (IN)

November 8:            US burns Prophet’s Town (IN)

November 12:          US and GB settle Chesapeake affair in Washington (DC)

December 24- April 10:                 US enacts war preparations 

1812

January 1:                Indians raid Hunt Lead Mine (IA)

January 8-19:          Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo (SP)

February 9:              Indians raid near Clarksville (MO)

February 18:            Indians raid near Salt River (MO)

March 3:                   Indians raid Fort Madison (IA)

March 6:                   UC adopts militia law

March 9:                   Madison exposes John Henry spy mission to New England

March 16-April 7:   Siege of Badajoz (SP)

April 4:                     US adopts 90-day embargo, prohibiting US ships from leaving port

April 6:                     Indians raid near Fort Dearborn (IL)

April 7-9:                  GB sacks Badajoz (SP)

April 11:                    Indians raid near Vincennes (IN)

April 14:                   US adopts 90-day non-exportation law, prohibiting exports

May 5:                      Indians raid White River (IN)

May 10:                    FR gives US spurious decree dated April 28, 1811, exempting Americans from the Berlin and Milan decrees

May 11:                     Prime Minister Spencer Perceval is assassinated (GB)

May 19:                    US Sloop Hornet (20) arrives in New York Harbor from Europe (NY)

May 19:                    LC adopts militia law

May 22:                    Dispatches from US Sloop Hornet (20) reach Washington (DC)

May 27:                    GB offers US share of license trade in Washington (DC)

June 1:                     US army departs from Dayton for Detroit (OH)

June 1:                      Madison sends war message to US Congress

June 4:                     US House of Representatives adopts war bill

June 5:                     US seizes British merchantman Lord Nelson on Lake Ontario

June 8:                     Earl of Liverpool becomes prime minister of GB

June 8:                     US signs treaty with Wyandots, Shawnees, and Mingoes at Urbana securing right to build road through Indian country (OH)

June 16:                   GB announces intention to suspend Orders-in-Council

June 17:                   US Senate adopts war bill

June 18:                President Madison signs war bill into law (War of 1812 begins)

June 18-26:             US sends out peace feelers

June 19:                   President Madison issues proclamation announcing that state of war exists and urging all Americans to support war effort

June 20:                   News of war reaches New York City (NY)

June 22:                   First Baltimore Riot (MD)

June 23:                   FR invades RU 

June 23:                   News of war reaches Albany (NY)

June 23:                   US Frigate President (54) clashes with HM Ship Belvidera (42) in North Atlantic

June 23:                GB repeals Orders-in-Council

June 24:                   News of war reaches Norfolk (VA)

June 24:                   News of war reaches Oswego (NY)

June 25:                   News of war reaches Quebec (QC)

June 25:                   News of war reaches York (ON)

June 25:                   News of war reaches Fort George (ON)

June 25:                   News of war reaches Sackets Harbor (NY)

June 26:                   US captures Carleton Island in St. Lawrence River (NY)

June 27:                   Canadian privateers capture American merchantman Commencement on Lake Erie

June 27:                   News of war reaches Plattsburgh (NY)

June 27:                   News of war reaches Black Rock (NY)

June 27:                   News of war reaches Halifax (NS)

June 27:                   News of war reaches St. Johns (NB)

June 28:                   News of war reaches Montreal (QC)

June 28:                   News of war reaches Fort Amherstburg (ON)

June 29:                   US captures British merchantmen Emperor, Experiment, and Adventurer off coast of Spanish Florida in Atlantic

June 29:                   GB captures American merchantmen Sophia and Island Packet in St. Lawrence River

June 30:                   LC prohibits departure of ships and goods until July 16

June 30:                   News of war reaches Lexington (KY)

June 30:                   News of war reaches Kingston (ON)

July 1:                      US doubles customs duties

July 1:                      News of war reaches Moraviantown (ON)

July 2:                      News of war reaches US army at Frenchtown while en route to Detroit (MI)

July 2:                      GB captures Cuyahoga in Detroit River

July 2:                      Connecticut refuses US request to call out militia

July 5:                      US bombards Sandwich (ON)

July 6:                      US adopts first enemy trade law

July 8:                      US bombards Sandwich (ON)

July 9:                      News of war reaches New Orleans (LA)

July 9:                      News of war reaches St. Joseph Island (ON)

July 11:                     In Boston Harbor GB restores deserters taken in Chesapeake affair (MA)

July 12:                    News of war reaches St. Louis (MO)

July 12:                    US invades Canada across Detroit River (MI/ON)

July 12:                    Skirmish near Fort Dearborn (IL)

July 12:                    BG William Hull issues proclamation at Sandwich promising to liberate Canada (ON)

July 16:                    News of declaration of war reaches Thunder Bay (ON)

July 16:                    British squadron captures US Brig Nautilus (14) in North Atlantic

July 16-19:               US Frigate Constitution (55) outruns British squadron in eastern Atlantic

July 16-26:              Skirmishing at Canard River/Aux Canards River (ON)

July 17:                    News of war reaches Mackinac Island (MI)

July 17:                  GB captures Fort Mackinac/Michilimackinac (MI)

July 19:                    GB attacks Sackets Harbor (NY)

July 22:                    Battle of Salamanca (SP)

July 27-29:              Second Baltimore Riot (MD)

July 30:                    News of war reaches London (GB)

July 30:                    News of repeal of Orders-in-Council reaches Quebec (QC)

July 31:                    GB embargoes all American ships in British waters

July 31:                    US Schooner Julia (2) and US gunboat (1) engage PM Brig Earl of Moira (14) and PM Schooner Duke of Gloucester (6) in St. Lawrence River

August 1:                 LC adopts law to promote circulation of army bills

August 4:                 News of repeal of Orders-in-Council reaches Boston (MA)

August 4:                 Third Baltimore Riot (MD)

August 5:                 Massachusetts refuses US request to call out militia

August 5:                 Battle of Brownstown (MI)

August 7:                 US withdraws from Canada across Detroit River (ON/MI)

August 8:                 News of repeal of Orders-in-Council reaches New York (NY)

August 9:                 Battle of Maguaga (MI)

August 9:              Henry Dearborn and George Prevost implement armistice

August 10:               PM Sloop Queen Charlotte (17) and PM Brig General Hunter (10) capture flotilla of American boats on Lake Erie

August 13:               News of repeal of Orders-in-Council reaches Washington (DC)

August 13:               US Frigate Essex (46) captures HM Sloop Alert (18?) in North Atlantic

August 15:               Fort Dearborn Massacre/Chicago Massacre (IL)

August 16:            GB captures Detroit (MI)

August 16-18:          Battle of Smolensk (RU)

August 19:            US Frigate Constitution (55) defeats HM Ship Guerrière (49) in North Atlantic

August 22:                Rhode Island refuses US request to call out militia

September-November:             State elections ensure Pres. Madison’s re-election

September 3:            Pigeon Roost Massacre (IN)

September 4-16:      Siege of Fort Harrison (IN)

September 5-8:        Siege of Fort Madison (IA)

September 5-12:      Siege of Fort Wayne (IN)

September 7:            Battle of Borodino (RU)

September 8:       US cancels Dearborn-Prevost armistice           

September 13-14:     Skirmish near Miami Rapids (OH)

September 14:          FR occupies Moscow (RU)

September 15:          GB raids Sturgeon Point (NY)

September 16:          Battle of Toussaint’s Island/Matilda in St. Lawrence River (ON)

September 16:          US burns Five Medals Town (IN)

September 19:          US burns Little Turtle’s Village (IN)

September 21:          US raids Gananoque (ON)

September 21:          GB raids Briton’s Point (NY)

September 29:          Battle of Bull Island (OH)

October 1:                 GB raids Charlotte (NY)

October 2:                GB bombards Ogdensburg (NY)

October 4:                Battle of Ogdensburg (NY)

October 6:                LC prohibits export of grains and foodstuffs

October 9:                US captures PM Brig Detroit (6) and PM Brig Caledonia (3) in Niagara River

October 13:           Battle of Queenston Heights; MG Isaac Brock killed (ON)

October 13:              Artillery duel between Fort Niagara (NY) and Fort George (ON)

October 13:           GB authorizes general reprisals against US

October 18:              US Sloop Wasp (18) defeats HM Sloop Frolic (22) in North Atlantic

October 18:              HM Ship Poictiers (80) captures US Sloop Wasp (18) in North Atlantic

October 19-December 14:         FR retreats from RU

October 23:              Battle of St. Regis (ON)

October 23:              GB raids French Mills (NY)

October 25:              US Frigate United States (56) captures HM Ship Macedonian (49) in North Atlantic

November 9-10:      Battle of Kingston Harbor (ON)

November 17:          BG Alexander Smyth issues proclamation from camp near Buffalo promising to annex Canada (NY)

November 19:           US invades LC (NY/QC)

November 20-22:    US burns Prophet’s Town and nearby Indian villages (IN)

November 20:          First Battle of Lacolle Mill (QC)

November 21:           Artillery duel between Fort George (ON) and Fort Niagara (NY)

November 21:           Indians raid Wild Cat Creek (OH)

November 22:          Second Battle of Tippecanoe/Spur’s Defeat (IN)

November 22:          Skirmish at Maumee River (OH)

November 22:          HM Ship Southampton (41) captures US Schooner Vixen (14) in North Atlantic

November 23:          US raids St. Regis (QC)

November 23:          US withdraws from LC (QC/NY)

November 23:          GB raids French Mills (NY)

November 28:          Battle of Frenchman’s Creek/Red House/Black Rock/Outposts at Fort Erie (ON)

December 11:           US Frigate Essex (46) captures HM Packet Brig Nocton (10) in South Atlantic

December 17-18:      Battle of the Mississinewa River (IN)

December 29:      US Frigate Constitution (54) defeats HM Ship Java (49) off coast of Brazil in Atlantic

1813

January 9:                GB publishes declaration defending its position on maritime issues

January 15:              News of war reaches Fort Astoria (OR)

January 17:              HM Ship Narcissus (38) captures US Brig Viper (16) in Caribbean

January 18:              First Battle of Frenchtown/River Raisin (MI)

January 22:          Battle of Frenchtown/River Raisin/Second Battle of Frenchtown                                               (MI)

January 23:          River Raisin Massacre (MI)

February 4:              Col. Henry Procter proclaims martial law in Michigan Territory     

February 6:          GB proclaims blockade of Delaware and Chesapeake bays

February 7:              US raids Elizabethtown/Brockville (ON)

February 9:              Duck River Massacre (TN)

February 22:            GB raids Ogdensburg (NY)

February 24:            US Sloop Hornet (20) defeats HM Sloop Peacock (20) off coast of Guiana in Atlantic

March 8:                   RU offers to mediate end to War of 1812

March 10:                 First runaway slaves in Chesapeake Bay seek refuge on HM Ship Victorious (78)

March 11:                 US accepts RU’s mediation offer

March 16:                 British squadron captures 4 armed American ships in Rappahannock River (VA)

March 17-18:            Artillery duel between Black Rock (NY) and Fort Erie (ON)

March 18:                 Indians raid near Fort Vallonia (IN)

March 19:                 Sir James Yeo appointed commander of British naval forces on northern lakes

March 30:                 Indians raid near Buffalo Fort on Salt River (MO)

April 3:                     Battle of the Rappahannock River (VA)

April 5:                     GB captures squadron of merchant vessels in Chesapeake Bay

April 6:                     GB bombards Lewes (DE)

April 6:                     GB raids Strawberry Island (NY)

April 8:                     Skirmishing near Fort Meigs (OH)

April 15:                   US occupies part of West Florida (LA/AL)

April 16:                    Indians raid near Fort Vallonia (IN)         

April 18:                    Indians attack mail carrier near Kaskaskia (IL)

April 19:                    Indians raid near Kaskaskia (IL)

April 23:                   GB raids Spesutie Island (MD)

April 27:                US captures York/Battle of York (ON)

April 27-30:             Skirmishing at Fort Meigs (OH)

April 29:                   GB raids Frenchtown (MD)

April 29:                   Battle of Fort Defiance/Elkton (MD)

May 1-9:                First Siege of Fort Meigs (OH)

May 2:                      Battle of Lützen/Grossgörschen (GR)

May 3:                     GB burns Havre de Grace (MD)

May 3:                     GB destroys Principio Ironworks (MD)

May 3:                     GB raids Bell’s Ferry/Smith’s Ferry/Lapidum (MD)

May 5:                     Battle of Fort Meigs (OH)

May 5:                     Massacre of US POWs at Fort Miami (OH)

May 5:                     GB occupies Charlestown (MD)

May 6:                     GB burns Fredericktown and Georgetown (MD)

May 15:                    US raids Indian village on Mink River (IL)

May 20-21:              Battle of Bautzen (GR)

May 26:                 GB proclaims blockade of major ports in middle and southern states

May 27:                 US captures Fort George (ON)

May 28:                   GB evacuates all posts along Niagara River (ON)

May 29:                Battle of Sackets Harbor (NY)

June 1:                     HM Ship Shannon (52) defeats US Frigate Chesapeake (50) off coast of Massachusetts in Atlantic

June 3:                    GB captures US Sloop Eagle (11) and US Sloop Growler (11) in Richelieu River (QC)

June 5:                    GB raids Gardiners Island (NY)

June 5-6:             Battle of Stoney Creek (ON)

June 8:                    Battle of Forty Mile Creek (ON)

June 8?:                  US evacuates Fort Osage (MO)

June 10:                  US Frigate President (54) captures HM Packet Brig Duke of Montrose (?) in North Atlantic

June 13:                  GB captures American supply ships on Lake Ontario

June 15:                  GB raids Charlotte (NY)

June 19:                  Francis de Rottenburg appointed president and administrator of UC

June 19:                  Battle of Sodus Point (NY)

June 20:                 GB raids Sodus Point (NY)

June 20:                 US gunboat flotilla attacks HM Ship Junon (46) in Chesapeake Bay

June 21:                  Battle of Vitoria (SP)

June 22:              Battle of Craney Island (VA)

June 22-23:       Laura Secord’s trek (ON)

June 24:             Battle of Beaver Dams/Beachwoods (ON)

June 25:                GB attacks Hampton (VA)

June 25:                US bombship destroys boats of HM Ship Ramillies (74) in Long Island Sound

June 28-August 31:             Siege of San Sabastian (SP)

June 30:                GB captures 2 American merchantmen near Chazy in Lake Champlain (NY)

July 4:                    Battle near Fort Mason (MO)

July 5:                    GB raids Fort Schlosser/Black Rock (NY)

July 5:                    GB rejects RU’s mediation offer

July 8:                    Battle of Ball’s Farm/Butler’s Farm (ON)

July 8:                    Indians raid Fort Madison (IA)

July 11:                   GB raids Black Rock (NY)

July 11:                   Indians raid near Ball’s Farm (ON)

July 12:                  GB raids Ocracoke and Portsmouth (NC)

July 12:                  GB raids Black Rock (NY)

July 14:                  British gunboats attack US Schooner Asp (3) in Yeocomico Creek (VA)

July 16:                  Indians raid near Fort Madison (IA)

July 17:                  Skirmish at Ball’s Farm (ON)

July 19:                  US privateers Neptune (1) and Fox (1) capture HM Gunboat Spitfire (1) and 15 supply boats in St. Lawrence River

July 20-27:           Siege of Tuckabatchee (AL)

July 21:                  US raids Frenchman’s Creek (ON)

July 21:                  Battle of Cranberry Creek/Goose Creek (NY)

July 21:                  GB raids Swan Point (MD)

July 21-28:         Second siege of Fort Meigs (OH)

July 22:                  Battle of Salamanca (SP)

July 24:                  US launches torpedo attack against HM Ship Plantagenet (76) in Lynnhaven Roads near Norfolk (VA)

July 24-August 2:               US adopts internal taxes

July 27:                  Battle of Burnt Corn (AL)

July 29:                  Boats from HM Sloop Martin (18) and HM Ship Junon (46) beat off attack from US gunboats off coast of New Jersey in Atlantic

July 31:                   Skirmish near Lower Sandusky (OH)

July 31:                   GB lifts blockade of Presque Isle (PA)

July 31:                   US raids York (ON)

July 31-August 1:   GB raids Plattsburgh (NY)

August 1:                 GB raids Cumberland Head (NY)

August 1:                 GB raids Point au Roche (NY)

August 1:                 GB raids Swanton (VT)

August 1-2:           Battle of Fort Stephenson (OH)

August 1-4:             US moves squadron from Presque Isle into Lake Erie

August 2:                 GB raids Burlington (VT)

August 2:                 US adopts law barring use of enemy licenses

August 3:                 GB raids Cumberland Head (NY)

August 3:                 GB raids Chazy (NY)

August 3:                 GB raids Champlain (NY)

August 4?-23:          GB occupies Kent Island (MD)

August 5:                 US privateer Decatur (7) captures HM Sloop Dominica (16) near Bermuda

August 8:                 US Schooner Hamilton (9) and US Schooner Scourge (10) sink in storm on Lake Ontario

August 10:               GB raids St. Michaels (MD)

August 10:               GB captures US Schooner Julia (2) and US Schooner Growler (5) on Lake Ontario           

August 13:                Battle of Queenstown/Slippery Hill/Hall’s Landing/Blakeford Shore (MD)

August 14:               HM Sloop Pelican (21) defeats US Brig Argus (20) off coast of Wales in Irish Sea

August 17:               US ambushes Indians near Ball’s Farm (ON)

August 24:              GB launches reconnaissance in force against Fort George (ON)

August 26:              GB raids St. Michaels/Wade’s Point (MD)

August 26-27:        Battle of Dresden (GR)

August 30:          Battle of Fort Mims/Fort Mims Massacre (AL)

September 1:          Kimball-James Massacre near Fort Sinquefield (AL)

September 2:         Indians attack Fort Sinquefield (AL)

September 5:         US Brig Enterprise (16) defeats HM Sloop Boxer (14)

September 6:         Skirmish at Ball’s Farm (ON)

September 10:   Battle of Lake Erie/Put-in-Bay

September 11:        Battle of False Ducks on Lake Ontario

September 13:        MG Henry Procter proclaims martial law (effective in Western and London districts) (ON)

September 14:          US raids Sugar Loaf (ON)

September 18:          GB evacuates Fort Detroit (MI)

September 20:         Skirmish at Odelltown (QC)

September 23:          US Frigate President (54) captures HM Schooner Highflyer (5) off coast of New England in Atlantic

September 27:          Battle at Peoria (IL)

September 27:          US re-occupies Fort Detroit (MI) and occupies Fort Amherstburg (ON)

September 28:          “Burlington Races” on Lake Ontario

September 29:          US occupies Sandwich (ON)

September 29:          US reestablishes civil government in Michigan Territory

September 29:          US raids Indian village on Lake Peoria (IL)         

October 1:                  Skirmish at Four Corners (NY)

October 4:                 Skirmish at Dolsen’s farm (ON)

October 4:                 Battle of McGregor’s Creek/McGregor’s Mills/Chatham/the Forks of the Thames River (ON)

October 5:                 US captures flotilla of supply boats on Thames River (ON)

October 5:              Battle of the Thames/Moraviantown/Thamesville; Tecumseh killed (ON)

October 6:                 Skirmish near Fort George (ON)

October 6:                US captures 6 vessels in troop convoy near False Ducks on Lake Ontario

October 7:                US burns Moraviantown/Fairfield (ON)

October 8-11:           US raids Twelve Mile Creek (ON)

October 11-13:         US raids Philipsburg and other settlements on Missisquoi Bay (QC)

October 16:              British North West Company purchases Fort Astoria from John Jacob Astor’s Pacific Fur Company (OR)

October 16-19:         Battle of Leipzig/the Nations (GR)

October 26:           Battle of Châteauguay (QC)

October 27:              US raids Frelighsburg (QC)

November 1-2:          Battle of French Creek/Frenchman’s Creek (NY)

November 2:             GB raids Champlain (NY)          

November 2:             GB raids Blackistone Island/St. Clement’s Island and St. George’s Island (MD)

November 3:             Battle of Tallushatchee (AL)

November 4:             GB offers US direct peace negotiations

November 6:             GB bombards US flotilla at Prescott in St. Lawrence (ON)

November 9:             Battle of Talladega (AL)

November 10:           Battle of gunboats in St. Lawrence River           

November 10:           Battle of Hoople’s Creek/Uphold’s Creek (ON)

November 10:           VT orders militia serving in New York to return home

November 11:       Battle of Crysler’s Farm/Williamsburgh (ON)

November 12:           Canoe Fight in Alabama River (AL)

November 12-13:     Skirmish at Nanticoke Creek (GB captures traitors at John Dunham’s home) (ON)

November 16:      GB proclaims blockade of Long Island Sound and remaining ports in middle and southern states

November 18:           Hillabee Massacre (AL)

November 19:           Cap. David Porter proclaims US annexation of Nuku Hiva in Marquesas

November 19:           GB raids Madrid (NY)

November 22:           MG Francis De Rottenburg proclaims martial law in Johnstown and Eastern districts (ON)

November 26:           US raids Twenty Miles Creek and Stoney Creek area (ON)

November 29:           Battle of Autosee/Tallassee (AL)

December 4:             GB raids Cumberland Head (VT)

December 10:           US evacuates Fort George and burns Newark/Niagara (ON)

December 12:           GB re-occupies Fort George (ON)

December 13:           LG Gordon Drummond appointed president and administrator of UC

December 15:           GB raids McCrae’s house on Thames River (ON)

December 17:           US adopts embargo barring all US ships and goods from leaving port

December 17:           GB raids Derby (VT)

December 19:       GB captures Fort Niagara (NY)

December 19-21:      GB burns Lewiston, Youngstown, and Manchester (NY)

December 23:           Battle of Econochaca/the Holy Ground (AL)

December 25:           HM Ship Belvidera (42) captures unarmed US Schooner Vixen II (rated 14) in North Atlantic

December 25:           GB drives two vessels ashore at Black Rock (NY)

December 27:           GB raids Derby (VT)

December 30:           GB burns Buffalo and Black Rock (NY)

1814

January 9:                US attacks foraging party near Fort Niagara (NY)

January 16:              Battle of Clough’s Farm (QC)

January 22:              Battle of Emuckfau Creek (AL)

January 22:              US raids Philipsburg on Missisquoi Bay (QC)

January 24:              Battle of Enitachopco Creek (AL)

January 25:              LG Gordon Drummond lifts martial law in Johnstown and Eastern districts (ON)

January 27:              Battle of Calabee Creek (AL)

January 31:              US raids Delaware (ON)

February 6-7:           GB raids Madrid area (NY)

February 14:             US Frigate Constitution (52) captures HM Schooner Pictou (14)

February 14-24:       GB raids Salmon River (NY)

March 1:                    Indians attack surveyor at Saline Creek (IL)

March 4:                   Battle of Longwood/Long Woods/Battle Hill (ON)

March 14:                 UC confiscates lands of anyone fleeing to US

March 26:                 US military court in Albany finds BG William Hull guilty of cowardice and neglect of duty (NY)

March 27-28:       Battle of Horseshoe Bend/Tohopeka (AL)

March 28:                 HM Ship Phoebe (46 or 53) and HM Sloop Cherub (26) defeat US Frigate Essex (46) off coast of Chile in Pacific

March 30:                 Second Battle of Lacolle Mill (QC)

March 31:                 European allies enter Paris (FR)

April 2:                     GB issues proclamation urging slaves in Chesapeake to join British forces

April 5:                     US raids Oxford (ON)

April 6:                     GB establishes anchorage at Tangier Island (VA)

April 6:                     Napoleon abdicates throne (FR)

April 7:                     GB raids Pettipaug Point (CT)

April 12:                   LG Gordon Drummond proclaims martial law in UC (ON)

April 14:                   US repeals embargo and non-importation law

April 14:                   Indians raid Cooper’s Fort (MO)

April 20:                   HM Ship Orpheus (42?) captures US Sloop Frolic (22) in Caribbean

April 25:                GB proclaims blockade of New England

April 25:                   US proposes armistice

April 28:                   Napoleon exiled to Elba in Mediterranean

April 29:                   US Sloop Peacock (22) defeats HM Sloop Epervier (18) in Caribbean

May 1:                       Armistice negotiations fail at Champlain (NY)

May 5-6:                   GB attacks Fort Ontario/Oswego (NY)

May 14:                    Battle of Otter Creek/Fort Cassin (VT)

May 14:                    Skirmish at Bouquet River (VT)

May 14-15:               US raids Dover/Port Dover/Long Point/Campbell’s Raid (ON)

May 15:                    GB raids Pultneyville (NY)

May 20:                    US raids Port Talbot (ON)

May 23-June 21:     Treason trials at Ancaster (ON)  

May 29:                    GB raids Pungoteague Creek (MD)

May 30:                    Battle of Sandy Creek/Oswego Falls (NY)

May 30:                    European allies and FR sign First Treaty of Paris (Napoleonic Wars suspended) (FR)

May 31:                    GB raids Pungoteague Creek (VA)

June 1:                     Battle of Cedar Point/St. Jerome’s Point (MD)

June 2:                     US occupies Prairie du Chien (WI)                     

June 8-10:                First Battle of St. Leonard’s Creek/Patuxent River/Battle of the Barges (MD)

June 12:                   GB raids Broomes Island (MD)

June 14:                   GB raids south of Coles Landing (MD)

June 15:                   GB raids Benedict (MD)

June 15-16:              GB raids Lower Marlboro/Ballard’s Landing (MD)

June 16:                   Skirmish at Hall’s Creek (MD)

June 16-17:              GB raids Sheridan Point (MD)

June 17:                   GB raids Magruder’s Landing/Magruder’s Ferry (MD)

June 18:                   GB raids Cole’s Landing (MD)

June 19:                   US captures gunboat at Tar Island in St. Lawrence River

June 22:                   HM Ship Leander (60) captures unarmed US Brig Rattlesnake (rated 14) in North Atlantic

June 26:                   Second Battle of St. Leonard’s Creek/the Patuxent River (MD)

June 27:                 US drops impressment demand

June 28:                   US Sloop Wasp (22) defeats HM Sloop Reindeer (19) in North Atlantic

June 28:                   Skirmish at Odelltown (QC)

June 30:                   GB raids Lewiston (NY)

July 2:                      GB raids St. Leonard’s Creek (MD)

July 3:                      US captures Fort Erie (ON)

July 5:                    Battle of Chippawa (ON)

July 9:                      Skirmish at Thames River in Aldborough Township (ON)

July 10:                    Wood River Massacre (IL)

July 11:                    GB captures Eastport/Fort Sullivan (ME)

July 12:                    HM Ship Medway (80) captures US Brig Siren (16) off coast of South Africa

July 12:                    GB raids Elkton (MD)

July 16:                    GB raids Calverton (MD)

July 17:                    GB raids Sheridan Point, God’s Grace, and Huntington (MD)

July 17-20:               Siege of Prairie du Chien (WI)

July 18:                    US burns St. Davids (ON)

July 18:                    GB raids Champlain (NY)

July 19:                    GB raids Leonardtown (MD)

July 19:                    GB raids Prince Frederick MD)

July 20:                    GB raids south of Benedict (MD)

July 20:                    US destroys Fort St. Joseph (ON)

July 20:                    GB executes 8 traitors convicted at Ancaster (ON)

July 20-21:              GB raids Nomini Creek (VA)

July 20-22:              Skirmishing at Fort George (ON)

July 21:                    US captures British merchantman Mink on Lake Huron

July 21:                    US raids Sault Ste. Marie and captures British merchantman Perseverance (ON)

July 21:                    GB raids Hallowing Point (MD)

July 21 or 22:          Battle of Campbell’s Island/Rock River/Black Rock River (IL)

July 22:                    GB raids near Sandy Point (MD)

July 22:                    US and Miamis, Potawatomis, Ottawas, Shawnees, Kickapoos sign peace treaty at Greenville (OH)

July 23:                    GB raids St. Clement’s Creek (MD)

July 25:                 Battle of Lundy’s Lane/Bridgewater/Niagara Falls/Niagara/the Falls/the Cataract (ON)

July 25:                    US raids Charlotteville (ON)

July 26:                    GB raids Machodoc Creek (VA)

July 30:                    GB raids Chaptico (MD)

August:                    US public credit collapses

August:                    US banks suspend specie payments

August 1:                 GB raids north of Cove Point (MD)

August 2:                 GB raids Slaughter Creek (MD)

August 3:                 Battle of Conjocta Creek/Scajaquada Creek/Shoguoquady Creek/Conkuichity/Black Rock (NY)

August 3:                 Battle of Kinsale/Yocomico River (VA)

August 4:                 US attacks Fort Mackinac (MI)

August 5:                 US squadron drives HM Schooner Magnet (12) aground on Lake Ontario

August 6-7:              GB raids Coan River (VA)

August 6-14:            Skirmishing at Fort Erie (ON)

August 7-14:            GB bombards Fort Erie (ON)

August 8:              Peace negotiations begin in Ghent (BE)

August 8-19:            GB lays down initial peace terms (BE)

August 9:                 US and Creeks sign peace treaty at Fort Jackson (AL)

August 9-11:             Battle of Stonington (CT)

August 10:               Skirmish near Odelltown (QC)

August 11-12:           GB raids St. Mary’s River (MD)

August 12:               GB captures US Schooner Somers (2) and US Schooner Ohio (1) in Niagara River

August 14:               GB occupies Pensacola (FL)

August 14:               Battle of Nottawasaga River (ON)

August 15:             Battle of Fort Erie (ON)

August 16:               US raids Port Talbot (ON)

August 19-20:          GB lands at Benedict en route to Washington (MD)

August 19-September 17:        GB bombards Fort Erie (ON)

August 20:               Indians raid Port Talbot (ON)     

August 20:               GB raids Rock Hall (MD)

August 20-September 16:        Skirmishing at Fort Erie (ON)     

August 21:                Skirmish at Nottingham (MD)

August 22:               US blows up its Chesapeake flotilla at Pig Point (MD)

August 24:            Battle of Bladensburg (MD)

August 24:               US burns Washington Naval Yard, US Frigate Columbia (rated 44), and US Sloop Argus (rated 18) (DC)

August 24-25:      GB burns Washington (DC)

August 27:               US blows up Fort Washington/Fort Warburton (MD)

August 27:               Cap. Thomas Boyle of US privateer Chasseur (16) proclaims mock blockade of GB and Ireland

August 28:               US captures British commissary agents in London District (ON)

August 28:               Nantucket declares neutrality (MA)

August 28:               GB raids Worton Point/Worton Creek (MD)

August 29:               GB captures Alexandria (VA)

August 29-30:         US raids Oxford (ON)

August 30:               Skirmish at Westminster (ON)

August 30:               GB raids Fairlee Creek (MD)

August 31:               Battle of Caulks Field/Moore’s Field/Moorefields (MD)

August 31:               GB invades New York

September 1-11:      GB occupies 100 miles of US coast from Eastport to Castine (ME)

September 1:           GB captures Castine (ME)

September 1:           US Sloop Wasp (22) defeats HM Sloop Avon (20) in North Atlantic

September 1:           Skirmish near Delaware (ON)

September 3:           Battle of Hampden (ME)

September 3:           US burns US Sloop Adams (28) at Hampden (ME)

September 3:           GB captures US Schooner Tigress (1) on Lake Huron

September 4-5:       Battle of the White House/Potomac River (VA)

September 5:           Skirmish at Indian Head (MD)

September 5:           Battle of Credit Island/Rock Island Rapids (IA)

September 6:           GB captures US Schooner Scorpion (2) on Lake Huron

September 6:           Battle of Beekmantown/Culver Hill (NY)

September 6-11:      Skirmishing near Plattsburgh (NY)

September 7?:          Skirmish near Cooper’s Fort (MO)

September 9:           US raids Port Talbot (ON)

September 11:          GB captures Machias/Fort O’Brien (ME)

September 11:          Battle of Plattsburgh (NY)

September 11:         Battle of Lake Champlain; Cap. George Downie killed

September 12:          Skirmish at North Point; MG Robert Ross killed (MD)

September 12:         Battle of North Point/Long Log Lane/Godley Wood/the Meeting House (MD)

September 12 or 13:          GB raids Bear Creek (MD)  

September 13-14:     GB bombards Fort McHenry (MD)

September 14:          Francis Scott Key writes “The Star-Spangled Banner” (MD)

September 14:          GB withdraws from Baltimore (MD)

September 15:          Battle of Fort Bowyer/Mobile Bay (AL)

September 15-June 9:                   Congress of Vienna (AU)

September 16:          US attacks Baratarian pirate base (LA)

September 17:      US sortie from Fort Erie (ON)

September 20:         US raids settlements in Western District (ON)

September 26-27:   British squadron defeats US privateer General Armstrong (9) in Azores

October 11:               US privateer Prince-de-Neufchatel (17) defeats flotilla of boats  from HM Ship Endymion (51) near Nantucket

October 15:              Skirmish near Street’s Grove/Chippawa (ON)

October 19:             Battle of Cooks Mills/Lyons Creek (ON)

October 19:             GB raids Castle Haven (MD)

October 21:             GB offers peace on basis of uti possidetis (BE)

October 22:             Renegade Americans murder Cap. William Francis of Norfolk militia (ON)

October 22-November 17:         BG Duncan McArthur’s Raid (ON)

October 27:            GB raids Tracey’s Landing (MD)

October 31:             Battle of the Windmills/Kirby’s Wind Mill (MD)    

November 1:          GB raids St. Inigoes (MD)

November 5:          US evacuates Fort Erie (ON)

November 5:          Skirmish at Grand River (ON)

November 6:          Battle of Malcolm’s Mills (ON)

November 7:          US occupies Pensacola (FL)

November 27:        GB drops uti possidetis (BE)

December 2:           GB raids Tappahannock (VA)

December 6:           Battle of Farnham Church (VA)  

December 14:     Battle of Lake Borgne (LA)

December 15- January 5:            Hartford Convention meets (CT)

December 15- February 27:         US adopts internal taxes           

December 16:         MG Andrew Jackson proclaims martial law in New Orleans (LA)

December 23:         Battle of Villeré’s Plantation/Night Engagement at New Orleans (LA)

December 24:     US and GB sign Treaty of Ghent (BE)

December 27:         British artillery destroys US Schooner Carolina (13) (LA) 

December 27:     GB ratifies Treaty of Ghent

December 28:         British Reconnaissance in Force at New Orleans (LA)

December 28:        US Congress rejects conscription         

December 31:         Cap. Andrew Bulger proclaims martial law at Prairie du Chien (WI)

1815    

January 1:                News of Treaty of Ghent reaches Congress of Vienna (AU)

January 1:               Battle of Rodriquez Canal/Artillery Duel at New Orleans (LA)

January 2:              HM Sloop Favourite/Favorite (26?) departs from Portsmouth with Treaty of Ghent (UK)

January 8:          Battle of New Orleans/Chalmette; MG Edward Pakenham and MG Samuel Gibbs killed (LA)

January 9-18:         Battle of Fort St. Philip (LA)

January 10:            GB occupies Cumberland Island (GA)

January 12:            Battle of Lakes Cove (MD)

January 13:            GB attacks Point Petre/Point Peter/St. Marys on Cumberland Island (GA)

January 15:             British squadron captures US Frigate President (52)

January 25:            Skirmish at mouth of Bayou Bienvenu (LA)

January 28:           British military court in Montreal finds MG Henry Procter guilty of mismanaging Thames campaign (QC)

February 4:            US adopts second enemy trade law

February 6:            GB raids Tobacco Stick/Madison (MD)

February 7:            Battle of the Ice Mound/the Tobacco Stick/James Island/St. James Island (MD)

February 11:           HM Sloop Favourite/Favorite (26?) reaches New York City with Treaty of Ghent (NY)

February 8-11:       Siege of Fort Bowyer (AL)

February 12:          Indians raid Busseron (IN)         

February 14:          Treaty of Ghent reaches Washington (DC)

February 16:          US Senate unanimously approves Treaty of Ghent

February 16:      Madison ratifies Treaty of Ghent (War of 1812 officially ends)

February 17:          US Congress rejects national bank

February 17:      US and GB exchange ratifications of Treaty of Ghent (treaty becomes binding)

February 20:      US Frigate Constitution (52) defeats HM Ship Cyane (33) and HM Ship Levant (21) off coast of North Africa in Atlantic

February 21:          US executes 6 militiamen in Mobile (AL)

February 22:          News of peace reaches Albany (NY)

February 23:          News of peace reaches Cumberland Island (GA)

February 24:          Battle of St. Marys River (GA)

February 24?         News of peace reaches Kingston (ON)

February 26:          Napoleon escapes from Elba in Mediterranean

February 26:          US privateer Chasseur (15) defeats HM Schooner St. Lawrence (13) near Cuba in Caribbean

March 1:                  News of peace reaches Quebec (QC)

March 1:                  British officials in Quebec proclaims restoration of peace (QC)

March 6:                 Unofficial news of peace reaches New Orleans (LA)

March 7:                 Skirmish at Prairie Fork on Loutre River (MO)

March 9:                 Treaty of Ghent proclaimed at Quebec (QC)

March 11:                British squadron recaptures HM Ship Levant (21) in North Atlantic

March 13:                Official news of peace reaches New Orleans (LA)

March 13:                MG Andrew Jackson lifts martial law in New Orleans (LA)

March 14:                News of peace reaches main British camp on Dauphin Island (AL)

March 16:                HM Sloop Erebus (26) attacks US Gunboat #168 (1?) off coast of Georgia in Atlantic

March 20:               Napoleon enters Paris and assumes power (Hundred Days begins; Napoleonic Wars resume) (FR)

March 23:               US Sloop Hornet (20) defeats HM Sloop Penguin (19) near Tristan da Cunha in South Atlantic

March 28:               News of peace reaches London (GB)

March 31:                MG Andrew Jackson convicted of contempt and fined $1,000 (LA)

April 4:                    Battle of Cote Sans Dessein/Roi’s Fort/Tibeau’s Fort (MO)

April 6:                    Dartmoor Massacre (GB)

April 16:                  News of peace reaches Prairie du Chien (WI)

April 24:                 News of peace reaches Mackinac (MI)

May 20:                   Indians raid Femme Osage Valley (MO)

May 24:                   Battle of the Sinkhole (MO)

June 18:                  Battle of Waterloo (BE)

June 22:                 Napoleon abdicates throne (Hundred Days ends; Napoleonic Wars end) (FR)

June 30:              US Sloop Peacock (22) defeats East India cruiser Nautilus (14) in Indian Ocean (last battle of War of 1812)

July 18:                   US and Potawatomis sign peace treaty at Portage des Sioux (MO)

July 18:                   US and Piankashaws sign peace treaty at Portage des Sioux (MO)

July 19:                   US and Teton Sioux sign peace treaty at Portage des Sioux (MO)

July 19:                    US and Sioux of the Lakes sign peace treaty at Portage des Sioux (MO)

July 19:                    US and Sioux of St. Peter’s River sign peace treaty at Portage des Sioux (MO)

July 19:                    US and Yankton Sioux sign peace treaty at Portage des Sioux (MO)

July 20:                   US and Omahas sign peace treaty at Portage des Sioux (MO)

August 21:              British military court at Portsmouth finds Cap. Daniel Pring innocent of mismanaging naval battle on Lake Champlain (GB)

September 2:         US and Kickapoos sign peace treaty at Portage des Sioux (MO)

September 8:         US and Chippewas, Ottawas, Potawatomis sign peace treaty at Spring Wells (MI)

September 12:        US and Osages sign peace treaty at Portage des Sioux (MO)

September 13:        US and Sauks sign peace treaty at Portage des Sioux (MO)

September 14:        US and Foxes sign peace treaty at Portage des Sioux (MO)

September 16:        US and Iowas sign peace treaty at Portage des Sioux (MO)       

October 16:             Napoleon arrives at St. Helena in South Pacific

October 28:            US and Kansas sign peace treaty at Portage des Sioux (MO)

November 20:       European allies and FR sign Second Treaty of Paris (Napoleonic Wars officially end) (FR)

1816

May 13:                    US and Sauks sign peace treaty at St. Louis (MO)

June 1:                     US and Sioux of the Leaf, Sioux of the Broad Leaf, Sioux Who Shoot in the Pine Tops sign peace treaty at St. Louis (MO) 

June 3:                     US and Winnebagoes sign peace treaty at St. Louis (MO)

June 4:                     US and Weas, Kickapoos sign peace treaty at Fort Harrison (IN)


[i].  The National Park Service compilation appeared under the title of “Revolutionary War and War of 1812 Historic Preservation Study.”  It went through several drafts.  I used the one that was released in January 2001.  The Eshelman-George work, which was completed in December 2000, carries the title “Maryland War of 1812 Battlefields, Selected Skirmishes, Encampments, Earthworks and Riot Sites.”

[ii].  Wood, Select British Documents; Cruikshank, Niagara Frontier  and Surrender of Detroit; and Dudley and Crawford, Naval War of 1812.